Human Systems

Atherosclerosis and Ischemic Heart Disease

What are the layers of an artery? Starting from the innermost layer: Intima: normally made up of single endothelial cell layer Internal elastic lamina Media: made up of smooth muscle […]

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Heart Murmur

What is a murmur? “swishing” sound produced by turbulent blood flow How are murmurs characterized? phase systolic diastolic holosystolic: throughout systolic aortic & pulmonic stenosis mitral & tricuspid regurgitation shape […]

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Heart Failure

What is heart failure (HF)? It is a condition in which the cardiac output (CO) is so low that it can no longer meet the metabolic demand of the body, […]

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Heart Function Review

Cardiac cycle ECG p wave QRS complex T wave Ventricular pressure vs time tracing Aortic pressure vs time tracing Atrial pressure vs time tracing a wave: atrial contraction c wave: […]

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Hydronephrosis from Postrenal Acute Renal Failure

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Postrenal acute renal failure can lead to retention of urine and distention of the bladder. The urine can backup via ureter to the pelvises and calyces. Consequently pelvises and calyces […]

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